overweight and obesity

The causes of overweight and obesity are multifaceted, and the study was limited by the design, which only allowed for cross-sectional inferences. Although the age groups included were consistent with previous literature, they could have been expanded to include younger and older populations. Moreover, other socio-demographic characteristics, such as marital status, physical activity, and family history, should be considered as potential risk factors of overweight and obesity. In addition, the study’s results should be interpreted in light of concomitant diseases, which may further influence the risk of obesity.

Body mass index

Generally speaking, a BMI of 25 or more indicates overweight and obesity. However, this is not an exact measurement. In 1990, the World Health Organization defined an obese person as one with a BMI above 30. That standard was similar to the NIH’s. It is best to seek medical advice if you have a BMI that falls outside this range. Then, you can consult a dietitian.

Waist-to-hip ratio

The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of fat distribution throughout the body. It is calculated by dividing the circumference of the waist by the hip circumference. The waist circumference is measured at the abdominal level, just above the navel. If it is greater than 0.8, a person has excessive fat in the abdominal area. People with WHRs greater than 0.9 may have excess fat in the hip area.

Social factors

Researchers have identified a number of social factors that may influence the development of overweight and obesity. These factors may be derived from the way social ties are formed. While the literature indicates a relationship between social ties and BMI, there is still some debate on the exact mechanism of social influence. In general, these factors may act in conjunction with current health behaviors. The aim of future research is to better understand the social influences on overweight and obesity.


The genetics of overweight and obesity is a growing field, and researchers are working to identify the genes that affect both levels of the condition. This research has been conducted in numerous studies including those involving families, twins, and adoptees. Researchers have found that certain genes are more strongly related to obesity than others. They are also interested in the interaction of genes with environment and lifestyle, as the two are strongly related. Here is a look at some of the recent studies in the field of genetics.


The built environment is an important factor in promoting unhealthy habits and contributing to overweight and obesity in adolescents. Most studies have examined the relationships between the built environment and obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia. In the current study, we looked at the associations between the built environment, SES, and physical activity. We also calculated body mass index in adolescents by utilizing a GIS-based questionnaire. This study highlights some of the most important issues regarding the built environment and obesity.

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